Understanding the data presented in FORT Monitor requires knowledge of three key concepts.
An autonomous system (AS) is a network or a group of networks managed as a unit. The Internet is made up of multiple, connected autonomous systems. Each AS is identified by an autonomous system number (ASN).
The Border Gate Protocol (BGP) is the protocol used by autonomous systems to communicate on the Internet. Each autonomous system announces to the others the group of IP networks (prefixes) to which it can provide connectivity. In turn, it learns from the other autonomous systems the group of prefixes it can reach. The BGP protocol is responsible for sharing this information among autonomous systems, and routers use this information to send traffic from one location to another.
Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) is a specialized public key infrastructure that applies to Internet resources (IPv4, IPv6, ASN). It is a tool that allows Internet operators to verify that the routing information they receive and propagate originates in a reliable, authorized source. This is done through a validation process where the operator uses the corresponding cryptographic material to validate that the entity requesting the routing effectively has the right to perform that action (to make that announcement). The RPKI solution is still in the process of being deployed; in other words, its use is not yet universal.